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ElectroMagnetic Field Literature
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EMF Study
(Database last updated on Mar 27, 2024)

ID Number 1846
Study Type Literature Review, Letter, Book Chapt., Report
Model Literature Reviews (ELF catch all)

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT: Prato 2015 (IEEE #6004): In 1984, it was initially discovered in mice that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) could attenuate opiate induced analgesia. In the past 30 years, we defined some of ELF-MF exposure and subject state conditions that can both increase and decrease nociception in snails and mice and can induce analgesia in humans. In our search for mechanisms and our desire to translate our findings to the treatment of chronic pain in humans, we pioneered the use of electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to monitor effects during exposure. We have contributed to an understanding of the phenomena but a considerable amount remains to be done by us and those who have undertaken corroboratory and complimentary work. As the recipient of the 2013 d'Arsonval Award, I was invited to prepare an article for Bioelectromagnetics that highlights research findings that led to the award. Here, I have focused on our main findings associated with the effects of nociception of exposure to ELF-MF. To enrich the value of this contribution, I have put our research into the context of work of others. Further, I have suggested future directions of research and the potential for linkages and synergies associated with the extensive literature on animal orientation. Hence, it needs to be acknowledged that this is a report of our contributions and not intended as a balanced review. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Ziegelberger et al. 2011 (IEEE #6063): The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified high as well as low-frequency fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). For high frequency fields the recent assessment is based mainly on weak positive associations described in some epidemiological studies between glioma and acoustic neuroma and the use of mobile and other wireless phones. Also for lowfrequency fields the evidence is based on epidemiological findings revealing a statistic association between childhood leukemia (CL) and low-level magnetic fields. The basic findings are already 10 years old. They have since been supported by further epidemiological studies. However, the knowledge on the main/crucial question of causality has not improved. This fact and in addition the small, but statistically significant increased incidence of CL in the surrounding of German nuclear power plants have motivated the German Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) to work toward a better understanding of the main causes of CL. A long-term strategic research agenda has been developed which builds on an interdisciplinary, international network and aims at clarifying the aetiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Schüz 2011 (IEEE #6064): There is an ongoing scientific controversy whether the observed association between exposure to residential extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and the risk of childhood leukaemia observed in epidemiological studies is causal or due to methodological shortcomings of those studies. Recent pooled analysis confirm results from previous studies, namely an approximately two-fold risk increase at ELF-MF exposures e0.4 ¼T, and demonstrate consistency of studies across countries, with different design, different methods of exposure assessment, and different systems of power transmission and distribution. On the other hand, recent pooled analyses for childhood brain tumour show little evidence for an association with ELF-MF, also at exposures e0.4 ¼T. Overall, the assessment that ELF-MF are a possible carcinogen and may cause childhood leukaemia remains valid. Ongoing research activities, mainly experimental and few new epidemiological studies, hopefully provide additional insight to bring clarity to a research area that has remained inconclusive. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Lagroye et al. 2011 (IEEE #6065): Animal studies can contribute to addressing the issue of possible greater health risk for children exposed to 5060 Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs), mostly in terms of teratological effects and cancer. Teratology has been extensively studied in animals exposed to ELF MFs but experiments have not established adverse developmental effects. Childhood leukaemia has been the only cancer consistently reported in epidemiological studies as associated with exposure to ELF MFs. This association has been the basis for the classification as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2002. Animal experiments have provided only limited support for these epidemiological findings. However, none but one study used an animal model for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the main form of childhood leukaemia, and exposures to ELF MFs were not carried out over the whole pregnancy period, when the first hit of ALL is assumed to occur. Moreover, there are no generally accepted biophysical mechanisms that could explain carcinogenic effects of low-level MFs. The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Manzetti and Johansson 2012 (IEEE #6324): The development and implementation of electricity in the modern society have facilitated the survival of mankind in the present, modern ages. However, the health consequences of introducing electricity into the society are poorly studied. Studies of artificial light and non-ionizing radiation are generally low priorities on the agenda of public health organizations, and the reported existing data indicate that there are several unanswered questions to whether humans are negatively affected in electrified environments. This article discusses the potential aspects of the impact of electricity on human health and brain function and introduces a hypothesis. The article furthermore discusses the disturbance of sleep patterns caused by electrified environments, and the increasing absence of natural stimuli to the human brain causing chronic 'digital stress' facilitating pathophysiological development. A significant need to study adverse health effects from non-ionizing radiation and synthetic luminous environments from an environmental toxicological perspective is definitely urged. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: de Vocht and Olsen 2016 (IEEE #6391): Conclusions of epidemiological studies describing adverse health effects as a result of exposure to electromagnetic fields are not unanimous and often contradictory. It has been proposed that an explanation could be that high-frequency voltage transients [dirty electricity (DE)] which are superimposed on 50/60-Hz fields, but are generally not measured, are the real causal agent. DE has been linked to many different health and wellbeing effects, and on the basis of this, an industry selling measurement and filtering equipment is growing. We reviewed the available peer-reviewed evidence for DE as a causal agent for adverse human health effects. A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and additional publications were obtained from reference lists and from the gray literature. This search resulted in 25 publications; 16 included primary epidemiological and/or exposure data. All studies were reviewed by both authors independently, and including a re-review of studies included in a review of data available up to July 31, 2009 by one of the authors. DE has been measured differently in different studies and comparison data are not available. There is no evidence for 50 Graham/Stetzer (GS) units as a safety threshold being anything more than arbitrary. The epidemiological evidence on human health effects of DE is primarily based on, often re-used, case descriptions. Quantitative evidence relies on self-reporting in non-blinded interventions, ecological associations, and one cross-sectional cohort study of cancer risk, which does not point to DE as the causal agent. The available evidence for DE as an exposure affecting human health at present does not stand up to scientific scrutiny. AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT: Diab 2019 (IEEE #7329): Recently, there has been attention and controversial debate topic about the effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human beings. The catalyst for public awareness initiated from the first epidemiological study in 1979 that reported an association between residential EMFs exposure and the incidence of childhood leukemia. For over 40 years, many epidemiological and laboratory investigations were conducted to identify the possible biological effects of low-frequency EMF. Several studies conducted at frequencies 50/60 Hz, which related to generating of electricity from electrical appliances. Experimental studies on low-frequency EMF have provided conflicting data under specific in vivo and in vitro environments. Some original papers have reported the damaging effect on DNA molecule in EMF-exposed cells. Other studies have suggested no such damage in EMF-exposed cells. Also, the conclusions from other studies were inconclusive. These conflicting findings may attribute to the differences in the apparatus used to generate electromagnetic fields, experimental design, exposure time, genetic endpoints, and biological materials such as cell lines and animal species, strain, and age. As DNA damage is frequently a prerequisite for cancer disease, this review provided an experimental body of evidence on the effect of EMF on genetic material.

Status Completed With Publication
Principal Investigator
Funding Agency ?????
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